THOMAS WEBSTER, ADA TAYMOORI.
Page No : 1-12
The role of nanomedicine in the treatment of osteosarcoma and in the prevention of infections
Osteosarcoma is the most common bone cancer in children and the third most common cancer in adolescence. The current survival rate for osteosarcoma is 60-70% which has not improved over the past two decades. The treatment of osteosarcoma is complicated by autotoxicity and side effects of various therapeutic drugs and osteosarcoma can also be accompanied with infection which can happen post-surgical resection or can be associated with implants causing graft rejection. The goal of utilizing nano-medicine in the treatment of osteosarcoma is to take advantage of nanocarriers for specific targeted drug delivery to cancer cells and to lower the negative impact of drugs on normal cells. Further, nanoparticles can prevent infections in patients. In this paper, we review specific nanomaterials, various micelleplexes, and their role in targeted drug delivery to Osteosarcoma cells. We will also review the anti-cancer effect of nanoparticles that should replace chemotherapy in the future. This paper also reviews the role of nanoparticles in passive and active targeting of osteosarcoma cells and the role of nanocomposites in cancer treatment and infection prevention in the osteosarcoma
Page No : 13-19
An opinion on hydroxyapatite based bio-composites as bone-scaffolds
Hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca,,(PO,),(OH),) is regarded as one among most bioactive materials for bone
and hard-tissue replacement due to its chemical and structural similarity as that of apatite with Ca/P ratio of
167. But, the use of HA 1s limited due to its poor fracture toughness to the order of 0.5-1.5 MPa.ml2, Therefore,
usually, some additives, such as Al,O, YSZ, ZnO, Fe,O. TiO,, Ti, Ag, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), Ti, etc have
heen incorporated. It is observed that the metallic reinforcement is a better toughening agent than the ceramic
reinforcement, but the release of metal ions may also hamper the key metabolic pathways of human cell. Further,
8-tricalcium phosphate (5-1CP) and bioglass addition can be used for attaining controlled resorption of material
under in vivo conditions so the natural bone can replace the artificial scaffold during healing process. Many
additives. such as Ag, ZnO, Cuo, Tio, etc have been incorporated to provide antibacterial efficacy to the
scaffolds. The aspect of antioxidant activity obtained from aliovalent ceramics (such as CeO,) may also assist in
expedited healing. The design of porosity at multi-length scales can also be envisaged as means of incorporating
cell-material interaction at bulk scale (-150-250 um size, for vascularisation), at micrometer length scale (-10s
of um for cellular alignment) and at molecular length scale (- few nm for surface protein interaction with implant
substrate). Hence, the onus is on interdisciplinary biomedical engineers to aspire and design multifunctional
bone-scaftfolds with required mechanical integrity, antibacterial efficacy, bioactive response, biosorption for
accommodating natural healing, and inducting expedited restoration.
CHANDRANI SARKAR, ARVIND SINHA.
Page No : 21-29
Synthesis of fully interconnected multiporous hydroxyapatite block for orthopedic application
n the present work, three dimensional multiporous hydroxyapatite block has been synthesized bya
novel process which comprises of two steps. At first, three dimensional polymer-hydroxyapatite nanocomnposite
was synthesized by mimicking matrix mediated in situ biomineralization process. Second is sintering step
where synthesized polymer-hydroxyapatite composite was sintered at 1200°C under atmospheric pressure. After
sintering, a structurally stable fully interconnected multiporous hydroxyapatite block was obtained. Detailed
structural and chemical characterization revealed the role of polymer matrix in the formation of three dimensional
multiporous hydroxyapatite block. Cytocompatibility of sintered hydroxyapatite block was evaluated by MTT
assay and cell adhesion test. Results evidenced the non-toxic nature of sintered hydroxyapatite block.
SANTANU GHOSH, PRITIRANJAN MONDAL, B. RATUINA VEL, KAUSHIK CHATrTERSEE.
Page No : 31-40
Effect of dual crosslinking on physico-chemical properties of hydrogels prepared from chitosan and alginate
Hydrogels have established their utility in the field of biomedical science and technology including
drug delivery and tissuc engineering, among other applications. Crosslinking density critically affects the resultant
physical property of the hydrogels. Here, we have successfully synthesized carboxymethylchitosan (CMC) and
oxidized alginate (AA)) from chitosan and sodium alginate, respectively, CMC and AA were used to fabricate
CMC-AA-single network (CMC-AA-SNH) and CMC-AA-double nctwork (CMC-AA-DNH) hydrogels.
Crosslinking of CMC-AA-SNH was done by dynamic covalent bonding, that is, iminc bond formation, whereas
CMC-AA-DNH was crosslinked via covalent imine bond and Ca2 mediated ionic interactions. Fourier transform
infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ('H NMR) studies were employed to
characterize the components of the hydrogels. Effect of dual crosslinking over the single crosslinked hydrogel
was extensively analyzed by rheological studies. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the CMC-AA-DNH
was more densely packed with interconnected structure than CMC-AA-SNH. Swelling study demonstrated that
the degree of swelling of CMC-AA-DNH was significantly less than CMC-AA-SNH due to more crosslinking
density. Compressive mechanical test of the hydrogels further indicated that CMC-AA-DNH exhibits fracture
stress of 79.5 kPa. These results indicate how the physical and mechanical properties of a polymeric hydrogel
system can be tuned through control of crosslinking, which have important implications for the use of these gels
for biomedical applications.
G. PERUMAL, A. CHAKRABART, S. PATI, Shiv Nadar University. Utar Pradesh , V. REDDY.
Page No : 41-48
Limiting platelet adhesion in stainless steel bio-implants through microstructural modification
Thrombosis, resulting from platelet adhesion and attachment is one of the major issues with blood
contacting implants. Limiting platelet adhesion is highly desirable to ensure the usefulness of implants in blood
contacting applications. In this work, we report on simplistic low-temperature high strain-rate processing to
minimize the platclet adhesion on biomedical grade stainless steel. In addition, processing was also done at low
rotational speed to study the cffect of strain rate during processing. At high rotational speed, the processed steel
resulted in single-phase ultra-fine grain structure along with significantly lower metal ion-release and better
hemocompatibility. In addition, increased cllular viability with no significant morphological aberations were
observed in processed specimen in Human Wharton's jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (HW-MSCs). Higher
resistance for platelet adhesion for the processed steel is explained by favorable electronic characteristics of the
metal-oxide and short-range polar interactions at the cell-substrate interface. Higher stability of the metal-oxide
on processed steel contributed towards reducing the metal-ion release and ensure better hemocompatibility
BISWANATH KUNDU, VAMSI K. BALLA, K. MURALEEDHARAN.
Page No : 49-57
Technology glimpse of bio ceramic implants developed by CSIR-CGCRI, Kolkata
or the last two decades, Bioceramics Group of CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CSIRCGCRI), Kolkata has been engaged in the development of new generation of ceramic materials for different
biomedical applications. The group has developed hip joint prosthesis with ceramic heads, hydroxyapatitebased bone fillers and ocular implants which after successful animal trials have been assessed through clinical
trials at diferent hospitals (Calcutta Medical Research Institute, Kolkata; Advanced Medical Research Institute,
Kolkata, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi and Moulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi
for hip implants and bone fillers and Eye Care and Research Centre, Kolkata; All India Institute of Medical
Sciences, New Delhi, Sir Gangaram Hospital, New Delhi, Moulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, Shankara
Nethralaya, Chennai, Sri Sankardeva Nethralaya, Guwahati, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital, Hyderabad and Disha
Eye Hospital, Barackpore) in the country. These technologies have been commercialized and available in Indian
market through M/s IFGL Bioceramics Ltd., Kolkata since January, 2005. Thereafter, few of the technologies
have been transferred to other Indian companies who are in the process of obtaining manufacturing license
from DCGI before commercialization. The Institute has also developed coatings on metallic implants by plasma
spraying hydroxyapatite/other calcium phosphates for cementless fixation in the human subjects. These clinical
trailswere primarily carried out at Sancheti Institute of Orthopedic and Rehabilitation, Pune under the leaderships
of Padmavibhushan Dr. K.H. Sancheti. Further, the Institute has also actively participated in few CSIR network
programmes to develop coated implants using diamond-like nano-composite (DLN) and standardize laser
engineered net shaping (LENS) process for development of patient specific prosthesis of irregular shapes.
ANSU J KAILATH', ARVIND SINHA.
Page No : 59-70
Mg-based biodegradable alloys for orthopedic implants -A review
: Traditional metallic biomaterials for orthopedic implants require materials exhibiting excellent
corrosion resistance in human body. Recently, implants made of biodegradable metallic materials are thought
to be potential for orthopedic implant applications as they can circumvent revision surgeries. These implants
are considered as the third generation implants as they are expected to provide adequate mechanical strength
to support the bone during restoration; have excellent in vivo biocompatibility and controlled degradation rate.
These implants would degrade within the body after completing its mission without leaving any residues within
the body. Biocompatible elements like Mg, Fe and Zn and their alloys have been considered for bone implant
applications due to their biodegradability. Amongst these, Mg alloys are preferred due its high specific strength,
low elastic modulus that are close to human bone and low density minimizing the risk of stress shielding. However,
Mg alloys have fast degradation rate in biological fuids leading to the release of hydrogen which would lead
to premature failure of implants. This paper reviews the research efforts towards the development of Mg-based
biodegradable alloys for orthopedic implants. Concepts followed in designing Mg-based biodegradable alloys,
the mechanical properties of developed Mg-based alloys, degradation mechanism of Mg-based alloys and the
efforts to reduce the degradation rate, and status of Mg-based alloys in orthopedic applications are compiled
along with the existing problems and future research directions.
SANDHYA SINGH TRIPALIYA, MANOJ KUMAR GUPT, RIYA SAHU, ASOKAN PAPPU, CHARU SHARMA, ASHISH KUMAR CHATURVED.
Page No : 71-80
Tuning surface resistivity and thermal hased polymer composite via conductivity of water resistant fly ash waste tailoring the interfacial polarization
High performance environment friendly industrial inorganic waste (fly ash) waste based water resistant electrical insulating hybrid composites are fabricated with very high surface and volume resistivity. Dielectric constant of hybrid composite was decreased significantly from 10900 to 4.98, 5.25, 5.00, 5.81, and 6.69 for filler concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 50 and 60% in epoxy matrix, respectively. Very high surface resistivity of 10 Ohms/sq. and volume resistivity of 104 to 10'5 Ohms-cm with ultra-low water absorption of 0.14 % were achieved. Thermal conductivity analysis shows a slight increase in the thermal conductivity of the composite sheet and reaches the value of 0.4387 W/mK. Such high resistivity is attributed due to low dielectric constant and interfacial polarization and low water absorption in the samples. Our approach presents new, adaptable and cost-effective means for effectively utilizing waste as eco-friendly electrical and thermal insulating sheet and lowering the thermal loss in microelectronics.
ASHIS K. PANDA, RAJAT K. ROY,, PREMKUMAR MURUGAIYAN, SOMNATH DAS, TARUN K. DAS, AMITAVA MITRA.
Page No : 81-88
Rapidly quenched magnetic materials for functional and sensor applications
Rapidly quenched (RQ) amorphous / nanostructured materials have been addressed in relation to their properties targeted towards potential applications. Quenching techniques like melt spinning and in-water quenching for production of these materials in the form of ribbons and microwires production respectively have been addressed. CoFe-based microwires exhibited interesting giant magneto-impedance (GMI) behviour and was used in development of GMI sensor for detection of carburization in austenitic stainless steel. Efforts have been laid on the production of Fe-based magnetostrictive amorphous ribbons and their potential use in magnetostrictive sensor (MsS) for generation of guided waves for detection of defects in pipes. Compositional tailoring has also been carried out in amorphous/ nanostructured ribbons to raise the saturation magnetization beyond 1.6 Tesla. Some of these ribbons have also been found to manifest interesting electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) properties.
KUNAL SINGH BISHT, KAVERI SAH.
Page No : 89-93
Spectroscopic Changes in conventional magnetorheological fluid and graphene oxide Spectroscopic agnetorheological fluid with combustion method
shit d G-band of Graphene Oxide observed at 1576.42 cm" due to the doubly degenerate zone center E2g and 2D band at 2702.58 cm" confirms the presence of Graphene Oxide. UV - VIS Absorption spectrum
spectroscopic analysis of conventional Magnetorheological fAluid and Graphene Oxide fluid. Raman spectra have been recorded using 532 nm laser excitation. The down
ased MR fAuid has been recorded of T-t plasmon peak at 233.82 cm' while a broad band is displayed in
mbustion method of separating Graphene layers by controlled oxidation. This analysis shows highly efficient,
rheological fluid. Here, Graphene Oxide used in Magnetorheological fluid is prepared by
ineauivocal, non-destructive identification of Graphene Oxide in Magnetorheological fluid.
BISHNU PADA MAJEE, ASHISH KUMAR MISHRA.
Page No : 103-126
Recent advances in photodetection applications of two dimensional MoS2 nanostructures
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with unique properties have received
a oreat attention of scientific community in recent years. Among the TMDs established as an intriguing building block for the next generation optoclectronifcasm, isluyc, hM aso Sp, hohtaosdebteeecntoarslr. eTadhye
optoelectronic device performance of TMDs are known to be layer dependent. The MoS, shows excellent light
absorption and is found stable in natural environment, which make it suitable for optoelectronic devices. In the
present review article, we discuss different synthesis processes for 2D-MoS, and have summarized few important
studies on the photodetection application of different morphologies of Mos, nanostructures. Here, we discuss the
different MoS, based photodetectors comprising of p-n junction photodiode and the metal-semiconductor-metal
Page No : 135-146
Prospective of titania based photocatalyst for environmental reduction reactions
In the last two decade photocatalysis is widely studied so as to evolve a green chemical rout to deal with he environmental and energy problem faced by the mankind. Among all the studied photocatalysts anatase Ti0, mmo st attractive even today though limited to UV light absorption in pure form. However, easy availability, high aqueOouus stability and nontoxic nature attracted the researchers to heen made by number of researcher go for different possible modifications. Effort has to modify titania through metal, nonmetal doping and mixing with other oxides
and sulphides to engineer the band gap, band potential and delay the charge separation through Z-scheme and hetero-junction formation so as to achieve the goal of producing stable and highly active photocatalyst for energy and environmental application. In recent past, various strategies have been tried to extend the solar light absorption from visible to NIR range by using appropriate material so as to ultimately promote the solar photocatalytic Derformance of Tio, based composites. Keeping these in view, present review will discuss the past and present development in the area of material modification to deal with band gap engineering, heterojunction formation, required porosity, powder catalyst separation and better charge separation with special objective of improved environmental reduction reactions. In addition future prospect of these materials has been discussed in details for new generation researchers. In particular material based on MOFs, two dimensional materials and metal halide perovskites based titania composites are emphasized for future evaluation to address both air and water pollution.
RANJAN K SAHU.
Page No : 147-153
Some notable experiments of graphene
Graphene is an allotrope of carbon where carbon atoms are attached dimensional through sp? hybridization in a (2D) plane. Based on the structure, graphene can be visualized as a single sheet of graphite. A. fm and K. Novoselov successfully isolated free standing monolayer graphene from graphite by scotch tape method for the first time in 2004. This discovery won them the Nobel Prize in physics 2010. However, several fincention experiments had been carmied out much before its birth by other eminent scientists. In fact, several
extended experiments have been pertormed to understand the properties of graphene after its discovery. This
article is a collection of some of the notable pre and post-discovery experiments. In addition, it includes some of
the experiments those have been carried out at CSIR-NML.